To investigate how strongly smoking dependence and smoking dependence motives are associated with depressive symptoms among daily smokers and if these associations are independent of measured confounders and shared familial factors.
Cross‐sectional individual‐based and within‐pair analyses.
Fourth wave of the population‐based Finnish Twin Cohort conducted in 2011.
918 daily smokers born 1945–1957 (48% men), mean age 59.5 years including 38 twin pairs discordant for depression.
Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale with a cut off value ≥20 for depression. Smoking dependence was assessed using the Fagerström Test for Cigarette Dependence (FTCD) and smoking dependence motives with three subscales from the multi‐dimensional Brief Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM): primary dependence motives (PDM), affective enhancement (AE), and Taste. Logistic regressions, using standardized scores of independent variables and adjusted for multiple confounders with correction for sampling as twin pairs, were used in the individual‐based analyses. Conditional logistic regression was used to control for shared familial factors in discordant twin pairs.
Prevalence of depression was 18% (n = 163: 61 [14%] in men, n = 102 [22%] in women). Higher smoking dependence measured by the FTCD (OR 1.45; 95% CI 1.20, 1.75), and dependence motives measured by the PDM (1.56; 1.30, 1.87) and the AE (1.54; 1.28, 1.85) were associated with higher odds of depression. The associations remained after adjusting for individual confounders, except for neuroticism, which attenuated all associations. FTCD, PDM, and AE showed associations with depression within depression‐discordant monozygotic pairs, suggesting an association independent of familial factors.
Depression appears to be associated with smoking dependence and smoking dependence motives related to heavy, automatic use and use to regulate affective states. The associations appear to be confounded or mediated by neuroticism but are independent of shared familial influences.