Evidence-based interventions recommended in the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control of the World Health Organization (WHO FCTC) are subject to implementation factors that might affect their actual effectiveness. The Colombian law enacting key commitments from WHO’s FCTC was signed in 2009. This study aims at evaluating the potential impact of the enactment and implementation of these WHO FCTC on four outcomes for tobacco consumption (last-year cigarette smoking prevalence, prevalence of heavy smokers, prevalence of lower intensity smokers, and monthly smoking incidence). We used data from the National Psychoactive Substances Consumption Survey (NPSCS) in 2008 (n = 29,164) and 2013 (n = 32,605), and assessed changes in these four outcomes WHO FCTC using propensity score matching (PSM). Propensity scores were obtained using key sociodemographic variables and by matching through a Kernel estimation. Matching quality tests were performed. The common support for both survey samples was 60,793. Sub-analyses were conducted using a governance index to assess the effect of heterogeneous governance levels, proxying implementation, over the country. We found that cigarette year-prevalence and cigarette month-incidence decreased after matching around 8 and 1.2 percentage points between 2008 and 2013, respectively. Consumption might have shifted, at least partially, from heavy smoking towards lower intensity smoking. Departments with a higher governance index showed larger reductions of tobacco use, possibly associated to a stronger WHO FCTC implementation. This study highlights the impact that the WHO FCTC had on tobacco consumption in a middle-income country and shows the importance of governance strength as a mediating mechanism for WHO FCTC impact. These results advance current knowledge on the effectiveness of WHO FCTC and shed light on the relevance of governance as a key factor in the WHO FCTC implementation.