Nocturnal enuresis is more prevalent in youth with sickle cell disease (SCD) compared to the general population. The purpose of this study is to estimate prevalence of nocturnal enuresis using diagnostic criteria and identify associated sociodemographic, medical, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) factors.
Youth with SCD (N = 248; ages 6.00–17.99 years) and their caregivers completed semi-structured interviews and questionnaires. HRQOL was measured using the Pediatric Quality of Life (PedsQL) Inventory. Medical information was abstracted from medical record. We generated multivariable logistic regression models to examine associations between factors and current nocturnal enuresis and nocturnal enuresis occurring any time in the past (lifetime).
Among participants (mean age, 11.3 ± 3.6 years; 50.8% male), 21.4% reported current nocturnal enuresis and 46% reported lifetime nocturnal enuresis. Male sex [odds ratio (OR), 2.57; p = .001], difficulty arousing from sleep (OR, 3.57; p < .001), higher school functioning HRQOL (OR, 1.02; p = .014), and higher fetal hemoglobin levels (OR, 1.03; p = .048) were associated with lifetime nocturnal enuresis. Younger age (OR, 1.16; p = .005), higher youth-reported fatigue (OR, 1.01; p = .045), difficulty arousing from sleep (OR, 4.92; p < .001), and higher lactate dehydrogenase levels (OR, 1.00; p = .042) were associated with current nocturnal enuresis.
Nocturnal enuresis is prevalent in youth with SCD and is associated with HRQOL, diminished sleep, greater fatigue, and disease severity markers. Routine assessment of sleep behaviors and fatigue are necessary when treating patients with SCD to understand the impact of nocturnal enuresis on HRQOL.