Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system, characterized as an inflammatory demyelinating disease. It presents a diversity of neurologic signs and symptoms as well the incapacities. Since the need for advances in MS treatment, many studies are for new therapeutic technologies, mainly through using preclinical models as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). This study aimed to observe and analyze the development in Lewis rats-induced model of EAE.
It was used 23 females of Rattus norvegicus, from 6 to 8 weeks, weighing around 170 g. Of 23 rats, 19 underwent EAE induction distributed in six groups to establish the evolution of clinical signs. B. pertussis toxin (PTX) doses were 200, 250, 300, 350–400 ng, and four animals as the control group. The animals had weight and scores analyzed daily, starting seven and ending 24 days after induction. Then, all animals were euthanized, and the brain and spinal cord were collected for histopathological analyses.
The results showed that the dose of 250 ng of PTX induced de higher score and weight reduction. All groups who received the PTX demonstrated histopathological findings. Those characterized as leukocyte infiltration, activation of microglia and astrocytes, and demyelinated plaques in the brain. In the spinal cord, the loosening of the myelinated fibers was observed by increasing the axonal space in all tested doses of PTX.
EAE was not dose-dependent. Histopathological findings do not proportionally related to clinical signs, as in human patients with MS.