The objectives of this review are to explore existing literature related to non-pharmacological interventions for acute pain management in patients with opioid tolerance and opioid abuse, to examine and conceptually map the evidence and to identify any gaps in the research literature. The question of this review is: what non-pharmacological interventions are used for the management of acute pain in patients who are tolerant to or dependent upon opioids?
Correspondence: Jennifer L. Hargett, firstname.lastname@example.org
There is no conflict of interest in this project.
© 2019 by Lippincott williams & Wilkins, Inc.