Prevalence of anxiety and depression is high in people with Primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS). However, there are currently no known reported studies about anxiety/depression in pSS patients from China. Our aim was to compare anxiety/depression in pSS patients and healthy controls; to investigate the prevalence of anxiety and/or depression among pSS patients in China; to evaluate its relationship with the disease activity, fatigue, pain, education, ocular surface disease, oral health, swallowing disorders, employment status, European League Against Rheumatism Sjögren’s Syndrome Patient Reported Index(ESSPRI) as well as to analyze potential determinants of anxiety and depression.
In this study, 160 pSS patients and 170 age- and sex- matched healthy controls were included. Participants completed self-administered questionnaires, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and so on. Independent samples t-tests, χ2 analyses and multivariable stepwise logistic regression modeling were used to analyze the data.
We found 33.8% pSS patients were anxiety, and 36.9% had depression, which were significantly higher than controls. And there were significant correlations among education, employment status, disease activity, fatigue, ocular surface disease, ESSPRI, oral health, swallowing disorders and anxiety/depression. Meanwhile, logistic regression analysis revealed that oral health and swallowing disorders were significantly associated with anxiety in pSS patients; as well as fatigue was significantly associated with depression.
The prevalence of depression and anxiety was high in adult pSS patients. Interestingly, oral health and swallowing disorders were the most important predictors of anxiety in pSS patients. Therefore, rheumatologists should pay attention to the potential mental comorbidities while managing patients with pSS and provide the basis for mental health providers in order to identify effective strategies for preventing and treating depression and anxiety among adult pSS patients. Simultaneously, rheumatologists should also focus on the oral health and swallowing disorders in pSS patients.