The unique clinical features of pregnancy termination in the second trimester with concurrent placenta accreta spectrum (PAS) disorders place obstetricians in a complex and delicate situation. However, there are limited data on this rare and dangerous condition. The objective of this research was to investigate and evaluate the clinical management strategies of this patient group.
The medical records of patients who were diagnosed and treated in our hospital from December 2005 and December 2015 were retrospectively reviewed.
A total of 29 patients were included in this analysis. A prenatal diagnosis was suspected in 8 (27.6%) patients, and the remaining 21 (72.4%) patients were diagnosed after pregnancy termination in the second trimester. In the subgroup with a prenatal diagnosis, a planned hysterotomy was performed in 7 patients who had total placenta previa and previous cesarean delivery. The remaining patient received medical termination. A subtotal hysterectomy was performed in 3 (10.3%) patients for life-threatening bleeding during hysterotomy, and the uterus was preserved with an in situ placenta in the remaining 5 patients. In the subgroup with a postnatal diagnosis, the implanted placenta remained partly or completely in situ in all 21 patients under informed consent. Ultimately, the implanted placenta remained partly or completely in situ in 26 (89.7%) patients in the two subgroups. With the application of adjuvant treatments, including uterine artery embolization and medication followed by curettage under ultrasound guidance, the implanted placenta was passed 76.6 (range: 19 to 192) days after termination. Uterus preservation was achieved in all 26 patients. The complications associated with conservative management included delayed postnatal hemorrhaging (2 cases, 7.7%), fever (6 cases, 23.1%), G1 transaminase disorder (4 cases, 15.4%), and myelosuppression (1 case, 3.8%). Seven women (26.9%) had a spontaneous pregnancy after conservative management, and no patient experienced recurrent PAS disorders.
Leaving the implanted placenta in situ is the preferred choice for patients with PAS disorders who underwent pregnancy termination in the second trimester and desired fertility preservation. Multiple adjuvant treatment modalities, either alone or in combination, may help to promote the passing or absorption of the implanted placenta under close monitoring.