Reinforcement-Based Therapeutic Workplace is a practical application of voucher-based abstinence reinforcement therapy. Abstinence reinforcement procedures are historically based on a construct central to behavioral psychology known as operant conditioning, or the use of consequences to modify the occurrence and form of behavior. In voucher-based abstinence reinforcement therapy for cocaine abuse, cocaine-abusing outpatients in ongoing methadone maintenance treatment programs receive escalating monetary vouchers for successive cocaine-free urine samples. These vouchers can be exchanged for goods and services purchased by staff on behalf of the patients. When this voucher-based reinforcement is applied to a Therapeutic Workplace, the patients are hired, trained, and paid to work in a supportive environment. They earn escalating base-pay vouchers while they remain abstinent from cocaine (and sometimes opiates) as verified by negative urine samples. Eligibility for participation in the Therapeutic Workplace is dependent on a client providing evidence of enrollment in either a community methadone treatment program or a comprehensive drug abuse treatment program for pregnant and postpartum women.