Primary Project (formerly the Primary Mental Health Project, or PMHP) is a school-based program designed for early detection and prevention of school adjustment difficulties in children 4-9 years old (preschool through 3rd grade). The program begins with screening to identify children with early school adjustment difficulties (e.g., mild aggression, withdrawal, and learning difficulties) that interfere with learning. Following identification, children are referred to a series of one-on-one sessions with a trained paraprofessional who utilizes developmentally appropriate child-led play and relationship techniques to help adjustment to the school environment. Children generally are seen weekly for 30-40 minutes for 10-14 weeks. During the session, the trained child associate works to create a nonjudgmental atmosphere while establishing limits on the length of sessions, aggression toward self or others, and destruction of property. Targeted outcomes for children in Primary Project include increased task orientation, behavior control, assertiveness, and peer social skills. The program is suitable for implementation in a specially designed place on a school campus equipped with expressive toys and materials (art media, building toys, imaginative toys).