Until the start of the twentieth century, the occupational structure of Jews in Amsterdam can be described as an ethnic-enclave economy, heavily concentrated in the trading and diamond industries. By 1941, however, Jews had taken advantage of other occupational opportunities, increasing their presence significantly within the new middle class that had begun to emerge during the Industrial Revolution.
This article seeks to map out some of the principal pathways to medical care used by the parents of poor children. We focus on the most formal provider of healthcare in eighteenth-century towns, the voluntary general hospitals, but we use these institutions as a prism to consider the way that the treatment of child sickness was managed more generally in five local settings.
This essay analyzes right-wing activism in Maine’s law enforcement community in relation to the state’s prisoners’ rights movement during the early 1970s. Viewing violent political repression as central to the decline of the radical prisoners’ rights organization, Statewide Correctional Alliance for Reform (SCAR), I argue that vigilante activity and police attacks on prison activists, including Portland Police Officer Edward Foster’s botched attempt to organize a police “death squad” to assassinate local ex-convicts during the summer of 1974, should be understood as the work of a right-wing social movement in 1970s Maine that included activist prison guards, police officers, law enforcement officials, and their supporters.
Koro is a syndrome in which the penis (or sometimes the nipples or vulva) is retracting, with deleterious effects for the sufferer. In modern psychiatry, it is considered a culture-bound syndrome (CBS). This paper considers the formation and development of psychiatric conceptions of koro and related genital retraction syndromes from the 1890s to the present.
Medical historian Gerald Grob and medical sociologist Alan Horwitz provide an important and carefully crafted interdisciplinary analysis of how numerous therapies are introduced into clinical practice in the absence of clear and compelling data and kept alive by a combination of faith, analogy, tradition, ideology, inertia, and politics.
This article argues that Dirty Harry (Siegel, 1971) is first and foremost a San Francisco film, a perspective that has been ignored by current literature. The article merges a close reading of the film’s narrative, iconography, and semiotics with an analysis of the film’s representation and refraction of San Francisco’s history, politics, culture, and popular image.
Mentally ill individuals have always smoked at high rates and continue to do so, despite public health efforts to encourage smoking cessation. In the last half century, the tobacco industry became interested in this connection, and conducted and supported psychiatric and basic science research on the mental health implications of smoking, long before most mental health professionals outside the industry investigated this issue.
This article traces the influence of post-war shifts in gender and race relations on the politics of federal welfare in the 1960s. It describes a conservative turn in the politics of welfare during this decade, driven in large part by the rising importance of race within the context of federal welfare policymaking.
From 1917 to 1918, Major Arthur Hurst filmed shell-shocked patients home from the war in France. Funded by the Medical Research Committee, and using Pathé cameramen, he recorded soldiers who suffered from intractable movement disorders as they underwent treatment at the Royal Victoria Hospital in Netley and undertook programs of occupational therapy at Seale Hayne in Devon.
Katharina Rowold provides in-depth analysis of the debates about whether women should be admitted to universities. The book is divided into three parts, one for each country, with the more familiar story of events in Britain presented first so it can provide a basis of comparison for Germany and Spain.
Since the process of assimilation of Jews coincided with a fertility transition, this study examines the relation between changes in the household structure of families of Jewish origin and the process of assimilation. Data were gathered from the Amsterdam registry for 717 Jewish descendants born in Amsterdam between 1883 and 1922.
Historically, child care, in much of Africa, was a communal responsibility especially through the practice of kinship fosterage. However, as a result of recent socioeconomic changes, there is some evidence to suggest that a shift is taking place in community perceptions about the continuing benefit of kinship fosterage for children in particular.
In the second half of the twentieth century, the widespread closure of psychiatric institutions changed the face of Western psychiatry. Community mental health programmes and acute hospital ward services replaced the huge psychiatric hospitals of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The results of this transformation are still being debated today. One of the less controversial consequences of this change, however, was the emergence of psychiatric museums and collections.
This article examines the role of Jimi Hendrix in the late 1960s as a vessel of the Black Atlantic, what Paul Gilroy describes as the counterculture to modernity. Placed against the backdrop of The Dick Cavett Show, a newly created talk show in 1969 hosted by the white liberal Dick Cavett, this article explores the dialogue between host and guitarist in an attempt to trace the longue durée assumptions and ideological patterns of modernity and its late 1960s repercussions at the end of the American Civil Rights movement.
There exists a voluminous literature on the history of vagrancy and vagrancy legislation. However, virtually all of its focus has been on the manifestations of vagrancy as a social problem. What has not received attention is another important aspect to this history, one that finds its roots and geneses directly out of its construction as a social problem.
The nature of the relationship between mind and body is one of the greatest remaining mysteries. As such, the historical origin of the current dominant belief that mind is a function of the brain takes on especial significance. In this article I aim to explore and explain how and why this belief emerged in early 19th-century Britain.
An ambitious book written by a practising Lacanian analyst. At first glance, its refreshing approach of relating the history of hysteria to clinical vignettes of transsexual experience promises to be a welcome contribution to the field of transgender studies, which is heavily oriented towards literary theory and cultural criticism.
Exploring the career of Sophonisba Preston Breckenridge (1866-1948), a pioneering social work educator and a key figure in the professionalisation of social work in the United States, this article aims to suggest how contemporary female social workers can reclaim their historic leadership role in the profession.